Sunday, 15 July 2012

TOONKA GARDHAHA/ARTOONKA GARDHAHA: (The Field Of Law)


TOONKA GARDHAHA / ARTOONKA GARDHAHA: (Field Of Law)

Indeexdan(This Essay): Waxa aanu ku qaadaadhigaynaa GARDHAHA oo ah saabsane aad u sureeran ama se aad mirdan.
Inta gardhe goon(category) ee jira, ama goonanka gardhahu waa sidatan:
I.                    Gardhaha Rasmiga ah (Waa Madiimanaan/Secular.): Madiimanaantu waa SECULAR, taas micnaheedu maaha ATHEISM oo ka dhigan dafirsanaanta jiritaanka Eebbeh.
II.           Gardhaha Dhaqanka
III.         Gardhaha Diiniga ah/Diimannaata

I.                    Gardhaha Rasmiga ah: Inta Gardhe Laameed ee ka sii jira waxaa ka mida:
Gardhaha Dalalkabaxsan(International Law)
Gardhaha Jidmaraalka (Traffic Law)
Gardhaha Sinjiyadda/Sowraca &ama Socdaalka (Ethnic &Immigration Law)
Inisyadiisu(Its Components) way jiraan, Gardhaha Rasmiga ah: Waxaa la kala dhahaa QODOB(Article) iyo XEER(Act).[EEG LIFAAQA/See the appendix ]
Himilada sudan ee bulsho ku taamayso ayaa ah SOORNAAN(Justice) iyo SINNAAN(Equality), Mar kasta oo inguul la gaadhaba waxa sudnaatay himilo, maxaa yeelay mar walba waxa lagu taamayaa waa guul, waxa se kolba la gaadhaa waa inguullo.
SOORNAAN-tu waa u gudboonaanta tawlalka, iyo gardeyaasha jira ee dal ka sudan-Ama Xuqquuqqda.
SINNAAN-tu; Waa halkudheg ku baaqaya in aan qofna qof wax dheerayn GARSOOR-ka hortiisa, marka la isqabsado ee dacwad ooganto, haddii aan la isqabsan oo aanay dacwad oognayn markaas soornaan ayaa la dhaqan yahay oo saamidan(Prevalent-ah).
Waxbarashadu way kala hilgan tahay. Marka ay tahay heer goshiyeed , Gardhuhu wuxuu ahaadaa TOON(FIELD) gooniya.Waxbarashada Dugsiyeed ee aasaasiga ah, waxa jirtay oo haddana la soo halceliyay, halgedda ugu dhow ee GARDHAHA tilmaamaysa ama aasaas ahaan laga soo barto. Halgedaas  jirta ee ardayda loo dhigo oo lagu magacaabo RAYDI(Civics), waxa ay halgedaasu tiraabtaa tawlalka ama gardeyaasha amaba xuqquuqqda uu qof dal ku leeyahay, sida gardhaha dal uu u jiro, iyo cidda ka adeegta ee ka shaqaysa ama huwaabaha(Organisations-ka) ka adeega ama ka shaqeeya ee u xilsaaran.

II. Gardhaha Dhaqanka: Waxa uu isna leeyahay inisyo(Components) lagu tubaabtamo. Waxa inisyadaas la kala dhahaa: XEER iyo XAAL. Siyaabo kale way jiraan oo loo kala iniseeyo: QUDH iyo QOON, ama DHIIG iyo DHAQAN.
Marka Gardhe Dhaqameedka Soomaaliga la tilmaamayo waxa lagu tiraabaa GAR!. Ereyga Gar waa uu sitaamo badan yahay. Mar waa DACWAD, oo waxa la dhahaa GAR baan u leeyahay. Marna waa GARDHE oo waxa la tibaaxaa Sidaasi GAR=(Archaic Meaning Of Law) maaha, oo ka dhigan SHARCI maaha/MASHRIC maaha, ama GARDHE maaha. Gar Soomaalida Dhaqanka, waa mid la naqo, oo waxa la dhahaa GARNAQSI, iyo mid la qaado oo waxa la dhahaa ha loo GARQAADO.
Marka Gardhaha Dhaqanka la xiganayo, waxa la dhahaa – Gartani hore ma tahay mid ina soo martay? Haddii ay iyadoo kale hore u soo dhacday, sidii loo naqay ayaa XEER ah, oo la jalbeebtaa, ama la xigasho-naqaa. Haddii aanay hore u soo marin, jaadkeedu gartaas, waxa la dhahaa , waa GAR-UGUB! Markaasna waxa loo golfadhiistaa sidii loo naqi lahaa, iyadoo dhan walba laga eegayo, sida ay ku naqantona waxaa laga dhigtaa XEER, oo waxa ay ku biirtaa GALKEYD-ka/GARFAYL dhaqanka(Cultural Archive), oo isagu xusuusaha bulshada garyaqaanadeeda ku keydsan.
Badanka Gardhaha Dhaqanku, waxa uu ka saamidan yahay, oo uu aad uga hirgalan yahay, xaga miyiga, oo ah, xaga beellaha bulshadu ku kala degaan leedahay. Beel kasta oo Qaranka Axdi(CAHDI) ku leh, waxaa ka sudan XEER, ay kala mid tahay, beesha kale ee ay isku qaranka yihiin. Ka sokow, xeerarka Qaranka u yaal, waxa beellaha u kala jira xeerar ku aadan sida ay u wada dhaqan yihiin, ama u wada dhaqmayaan, kuwaasoo gadhwadeennadoodu kala ogsoon yihiin.

III . Gardhaha Diiniga-ah: Sida xoghayeennada Diintu, ictiqaadsan yihiin, Gardhuhu waa saabsane sureeran ama aad u muhiim ah. Taasoo gaadhsiisan heer Eebbeh uu samada ka soo dejiyay, oo uu Nebiyo ama Rasuullo ku soo dejiyay, kuna soo dejin jiray. Waxa kaloo ay ictiqaadsan yihiin, in Gardhuhu aanuu ahayn, wax Aadmigu alifi karo ama uu taawin karo. Gardhaha marka dhanka Diinta laga eego, wuxuu ahaa taxane samada Eebbeh ka soo dejin jiray, oo haatan ebyoomay oo la wada ogsoon yahay, Dhaabkiisa iyo Dheegiisaba.
Gardhaha Diiniga ahi, wuxuu isba sidoo kale leeyahay, inisyadiisa, kuwaasoo lagu magacaabo AXKAAM ama GARDHEBYO.

DHIDBANAANTA GARDHAHA:( Firmness Of Law)
Dalalka horumarsan ee lagu tilmaamsado inay soornaan iyo sinnaan ka jirto , waxaa Dhidbanaan leh Gardhaha.
Waxa jira SATI ama Tiraab, dunida ka caan ah, oo ku aadan GARDHAHA iyo Soornaanta. “Dacwaysanuhu waa uu salsuuban yahay taniyo inta eed ku run-ahaanayso!” = “The Suspect Is Innocent Until Proven Guilty”= “Al-Mutaham Barii Xataa Tuthbit Idaanatu”.
Xaga af-Soomaaliga waxa haatan la dhahaa, qofka DACWAYSANE-ha ah EEDEYSANE..Taasina waa mid tilmaamaysa, in aan dacwaysanaha loo xeerinin eed la’aan, ama laga sii horkadhacayo in qofkii la dacweeyaba uu eedaysane yahay.
Waxa se ay soornaantu ku jirtaa, in aan dacwaysanaha la dhihin eedaysane, taniyo inta uu Garsoore ku gardhebayo inuu dacwaysanuhu eedaysane yahay.
Xeer-ilaaliye(The Prosecutor)- Ayaa dacwaysanaha ku ooga dacwad(Case/Qqaddiyah). Dacwadda qof baa ka dacweeye ah, oo u xilsaartay huwaabta Dawladda u qaabilsan Gardhaha. Xaga dawladda Xeer-ilaaliyayaasha ayaa dacwadaha soo-ooga. Garsooreyaashu waa ay garqaadaan (Do Trails)- Garqaadista danbadeed ayaa dacwaysanuhu noqdaa eedaysane(Guilty) ama ma-eedaysane(Not-Guilty).
GARSOOR waa THE JUDICIARY. Gardhebe waa The Judge Who Makes The Sentence! Gardhebka uu Garsoore gardhebayo, ayaa soornaan sameeya, ama eexi ka timaadaa, haddii aan si soornaan iyo sinnaan leh, loo garqaadin.
Garqaadista waxaa u lama-huraan ah, in dacwaysanuhu helo, qareen ka deedafeeya wixii aan qabanin ee uu dacwaysanuhu rabo in Golgarka dhexdiisa looga sheego, si taas uu Garsooruhu u ogaado, ka hor inta aanuu gardhebin, ama gardheb samaynin.
SOORNAANSHE-hu(Al-Cadli-gu): Waa Eebbeh. Isagaa laga tayametaa eexla’aanta oo ku sitaaman inuu leeyahaya soornaanta. Soornaanshenimadu waa sitaan milgan oo ka mida sitaamaha Eebbeh ee laga tayameto.
Iska-jiraada ama iska-jirista eexdu(Ttulmi-gu) waa suubanaanta dadnimo ama qofnimo ee Bini-Aadam gaadho. Qofka garsoorka ka shaqeynaya waxa la gudboon inuu ku adeego eexla’aan iyo xaglin la’aan. haddii kale wuxuu jebinayaa anshaxii shaqada

Dhidbanaanta Gardhaha waxaa door ka qaata, GOLGARADA(The Courts). Siyaabo kala duwan ayaa, qaran walba u dhidbaneeyaa, golgaradiisa. Mar waxa jira Golgar Dhaqan, mar waxa jiri kara Golgar Diin, mar kale waxa jiri kara Golgar Rasmiya, waxa ay taasi ku xidhan tahay, marba dacwadda taagan. Haatan, sida bulshada Soomaalida u jirta, ee golgaro u ah, waxa la magacaabaa Golgar Degmo, Golgar Gobol, iyo Golgar Sare, ama Golgarka Racfaanka. Dal ba si baa u gaarra. Taasina waxay ku xidhan tahay sida Talameelkooda Gardheed uu u jiro(The Policy Behind The Judiciary System) Talameelkaas ama POLICY-gaas oo lagu tilmaami karo, kala helista SINNAAN iyo SOORNAAN.
Xaga gardhaha ee dalalka dal-ba si buu u dhidbaneeyaa huwaabaha u xilsaaran arrimihiisa gardhaha, sidoo kala-na u magacaabaa suraabada u higilan xilalka gardheed (The titles holding legal resposibilty). Tusaaleyaal:
Garyaqaanada Ama Qareennada Garneed = Lawyers Or Legal Representatives
-Garyaqaanka Dawladda [Waa Garyaqaan u qaabilsan dalka arrimaha dawladnimada]
-Garyaqaanka Arrimaha Rayidka
-Garyaqaanka Arrimaha Dastuurka
-Garyaqaanka Arribaha Diinka/Diinta

Xeer-ilaaliyeyaalsha = Prosecutors
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Dawladda [Waa xeer-ilaaliye gaar ugu qaabilsan dalka arrimaha dawladda]
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Rayidka
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Dastuurka
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arribaha Diinka 

Garsooreyaalsha = Judges:
Garsooraha Arrimaha Dawladda
Garsooraha Arrimaha Dastuurka
Garsooraha Arrimaha Diinta
Tiraabo-(Terms):

I. Gardhaha Madiimannaata = Secular Law = Mashric Al-Dunyawiy
II. Gardhaha Dhaqanka = Cultural Law = Mashric Al-Qqinaathiy
III. Gardhaha Diiniga Ah/Diimannaanta = Religious Law = Mashric Al-Diiniy

HUWAAB-ta = Instituation/Organisation/Al-Hay'ah
Tiraabganka Gardhaha = Terminology Of Law
Golgar = Court
Qolgar = Courtroom
Edeg-ga = The Dock
Barta Marqaatiga/Maragqaatiga = Witness Box
Goobjooge = Eye-Witness
Gardhe = Law = MASHRIC
GAR = Somali Archaic Term Of  Law /As Well As: Somali Cultural Term Of Law
Gardhe-dejiye/Gardhe-qorista = Legislator/Law-maker/MUSHRIC
Xeerdejin-ta/Xeer-qorista = Legislation(Legislative Body) = MUSHRICIIN
Si-gardheed = Legal Wise = Sifa-sharciyah/qaanuuniyah/ SIFA-MASHRICIYAH
Garne = Legal:[Waxa garne ah xeerarka dhaqangalay ee gardheed]
Garneyn = Legalizing [Si-gardheed u dhaqangelin xeer/xeerar]
Sinnaan = Equality
Soornaan = Justice
Eex = Lack of justice = Ttulmiy
Soornaanshe/Soornaalaha = The Just = Al-Caadil-ka/Al-Cadlu (Eebbeh)
Kasmada/Kasmaha Waxmaragga = Forensic Science
Wacaal/Wacaallo = Clue/Clues/Forensic
XEERI = ENACT
XEERIS = ENACTING
U-xeerin = To Enact For..
Xeer-ilaalin-ta Guud = Prosecution Service/Niyaabah Al-Caamah
Xeer-ilaaliye = Prosecuter/Wakiil-Niyaabah
Xeer-ilaaliyaha Guud/Garyaqaanka Guud = Attorney General/Naa'ib Al-Caam
Garyaqaan = Lawyer
Garsoore = The Judge
Garsoor = The Justice/Judiciary System
Gardhebaad = Sentencing[e.g. Waxa lagu gardhebay.../waxa loo gardhebay....]
GARBEEGTI- TRIBUNAL
Xeerbeegti = Jury
Dacwaysane = Charged/Suspected person
Dacwad = Legal case/Case
Golgarka Racfaanka = Appeal Court
Golgarka Sare = Supreme Court
Racfaansi = Appealing
Gardhegaysi = Hearing
Garqaadis = Trial
Xeer-quduuc = Persecution
Dhigaalshe Guud = Notary Public/Nootaayo
Qareen = Legal Reprensatative/Defender
Garne-kaal = Legal Aid
Garnekaalis-ka = Paralegal
GARNEKAALISYO-da = PARALEGALS
Dooya-qaad = Advocate
Dooya-qaadis = Advocacy
Garde/Gardeyaal = Right/Rights
Garde = Entitlement [Gardeyaal = Entitlements]
Waxa uu u garde-leeyahay... = He is entitled to...
Tawl/Tawlal = Right/Rights
Tawlmoon/Tawlmoone = Righteous/Xaqqaaniy
Xeer =  Act
Qodob = Article
Tarab = Clause (Faqrah/Faqrad)
Reged-ka = Bench (Guddi-garsooreyaal ah halka ay fadhiistaan ama iyaga) 
Ilaaq = An Offence
Dhibaab = Penal/ Ciqqaab
Qayxooyinka Dhibaabta = Penal Codes
Gardheyaalsha Dhibaabta = Penal Laws
Dacwi-ga = Case-Party
Dacwiya-da = Case-Parties
Eersade = Claimant
Lagu-eeseeyay = Charged with...
Lagu-eedeeyay = Accused
Geysimaad = Conviction
Geysimaadyo Hore = Previous Convictions
Goodhac = Verdict [e.g. Jury have you reached your verdict=Xeerbeegti ma gaadheen GOODHACIINII!]
Libraar Rayid/Rayidnimo = Civil Liberty
Libraaraha Rayidka = Civil Liberties
Gardhaha Dhagaraha = Criminal Law
Gardhaha Is-Aaminaadda = Trust Law
Gardhaha Habmaamulka = Administrative Law
Gardhaha Qandarro-da = Contracts Law
Gardhaha Qoomaha(Qoon-ta) = Torts Law

MICNAYAAL LIFAAQ-AH [APPENDIX]

EREYGA GAR:
1. Waa GAR = Waa RUN/It is true/It is Truth /Ssidqq
2. Waa GAR = Waa XAQQ/It is RIGHT/It is ENTITLEMENT
3. GAR-ka[Jawaq Soomaaliga Koonfureed] = GADH-ka[Jawaqa Waqooyi] =Timaha Gafuurka/The Beard
4. GAR-ta = Dacwadda(Modern Term Of Case)/Qqaddiyah
5.GAR = GARDHE(Somali Modern Term Of LAW)/MASHRIC
6.GAR = Xadhig ka mida xadhkaha awrka lagu hoggaamiyo
7.GAREE = Siyee/Xadhkee/Law-garee/Legalize/Garnee/Gardhee/Sharciyee/Mashricee
8. Waa Loo GARAY = Waa Loo Gardhebay/Waa Loo Xukumay/It has been sentenced for...
Ereyga GAR xaga af-Soomaaliga waa erey MADIYA, oo Gareef-ahaan ama NAXWE-ahaan ma yeesho WADARAYN. Isku-dayid baa ah: GARAR/GARAYOW/GAREYAAL/GARYAAL. Hase ahaatee, sida haddeeran marka jeedafku uu LAW-ga/SHARCI-ga/MASHRICA yahay Waa GARDHE ereyga tiraabta ah, oo yeesha wadarayn ahaata GARDHEYAAL.
Erey-tiraabeed waa erey micne sariban leh(A word which has a specific meaning) - Taasina waa muhiim xaga waxbarashada oo dhan, siiba barashada Gardhaha.
9. GARDHEYAAL = MASHAARIC / LAWS

Waxa sidoo kale ah MADI: Ereyadan ama Tiraabahan XEER iyo QODOB
EREYGA XEER:
1. XEER = Qqaanuun/Act
2. XEER = Convention/Charter/Mucaahadah/Cahdiy/HESHIIS/DHAAHO
3. XEER = Asalka Miyiga waa xadhig ka mida xadhkaha Aqal Soomaaliga ku dabran.
4.XEER = Micne DHAQAN= DO AS YOU WOULD BE DONE BY!(Cultural Proverb): "Ka Yeel Sidii Lagaa Yeeli Lahaa!" : "Ka Yeel Sida Aad Jeceshahay In Lagaa Yeelo!"
5. XEER = Rule/Qqaacidah/Xukum/Dastuur
6. XEEROW! XEER XEER![Ayaa seddexjeer la dhahaa marka aan tiraabo la kala qoronin xeer..AAMIIN] =
O'God Let That Be An Act![AAMIIN]
7. XEER = Magaca Eebbeh Ee Gardhaha = God's Name Of Law
EREYGA QODOB:
1. QODOB = Saabsane/TOPIC/POINT
2. QODOB = AGENDA
3. QODOB = Tolmo la tolo meel jidh ah, ama harqad maro ah ama wax kale ah.
4. QODOB = ARTICLE/NASS