Wednesday, 6 February 2013

Faaqidaadda Hawraarta-[Critiquing Literature]



FAAQIDAADDA HAWRAARTA: (Critiquing Literature)


Sida aynu soo ogsoonaanay, hawraarta ayaa laba goon ah: SOOBAAN Iyo SUUGAAN: Waxa aynu xadidaabnay waxa SUUGAAN inoogu qeexnaanaya, oo aynu dhahnay waa MURTI-da iyo MAANSOOYIN-ka. Waxa kaloo aynu carabaabnay waxyaabaha goonka SOOBAAN ku tilmaamnaanaya: Waxa u horeeya:
-          XAANSHI QORISTA:
-          Xaanshi gacalnimo
-          Xaanshi codsiya
-          Xaanshiyo xafiiseed(Rasmiya)…Ka-xafiis ilaa xafiis aada: Ama Wareegto iwm.
-          CODBAYN-ta/CODBAAN-ta/QUDBAD-da/KHUDBAD-da: Oo iyada la jeediyo oo kolkaas ah mid ORAFAN lagana dhigi karo mid QORAN.
-          CURIS-ka
-          INDEEX-da
-          MAQAAL-ka
-          JEEDAALWARIN-ta/JEEDAALO-da(The Review)
-          WARBIXIN-ta
-          WARFAALLO-da
-          FAALLO-da
-          INTIFAALLO-da
-          FALANQE-ha[Orafan ama Qoran]
-          FAAQIDAAD-da[Oo ah sida tan aynu hadda u gol-leenahay]
-          WAX-KASMEED[Sida Dersiyo/Duruusta buugaagta waxbarashada ku qoran]
-          WAX-GARNEED[Sida: Qandar qoran(Written Contract), Dardaaran(Will), Dastuur(Constitution), ]
-          DIHADHIG-ga
-          TAABADHIG-ga
-          SHEEKOOYIN-ka[Buugaysan sida NOVEL(Cusayble): Ama si kale u qoran oo la jili karo: Sida:- Majaajilo,Ruwaayad,Googoos,Maadays,Filim iwm]
Ugu horayn marka aynu SOOBAAN faaqidayno, waxa aynu kala soocyanaynaa halkarroda(The Features) soobaanta. Maxaa-yeelay, halkar kastaaba waxa uu leeyahay sasaan afeed oo loo baahan yahay inuu ku qornaado, ama ku dhignaado. Tusaale, haddii xaanshi gacalnimo uu qof qorayo, waxa uu ku bilaabayaa:
Gacal Hebel/Gacalo Hebla
Halka haddii uu xaanshi xafiiseed qorayo uu ku bilaabayo
Mudane/Jaalle ama Marwo/Jaalle
Sidaasoo weliba sii kale sasaan afeed duwan. Xaanshida gacalnimo waxaa ku dheehan dareen maaxateed(Emotional Feeling)-Waxa ku dheehan-Jacayl,labxasho,kalgacayl,isu-darsasho, is-jamasho,jamatiin(Romance) iwm, halka tan rasmiyeed lagu dhigaaleeyo sasaan afeed tigtigan oo aan maaxatadu hoggaankeeda ahayn.
Marka aynu isla garano, halkar kasta iyo sasaan afeedka ku habboon inuu ku dhignaado, waxa aynu gudagalaynaa:
 QIIMEYN FAAHFAAHSAN(Detailed Evaluation):
1.      Dhoodad-siin[Giving Merits For….]
2.      Dhiifo-saar[Libelling Defects For…]
Waxa aynu gudadayaynaa TIDICyada iyo TUDUCyada waxqoraalka qoraa’ kasta, waxa aynu isu barbardhigaynaa inta DHOOD ee qoraalkiisu yeeshay, iyo inta DHIIFOOD ee qoraalkiisu yeeshay.
Qoraallo-da waxbarasheed waxaa laga dayaa xaga gawnaanta(The Exactness) waxsheegga, sasaan afeedkooduna yahay mid bayaxa(Plain Language/Transparent), kaasoo ah mid tiraabaysan oo xiga sasaan afeedka rasmiga ah si ahaan. Waxa waxqoruhu uu ku taabaqoraa hab tiraab-tiraab ah, oo laga dhadhansan karo gawnaanta iyo saribnaanta (Specific-being ) waxa uu tilmaamayo, ama tiraabayo.
Qoraallo-da Curisyo ah, ama Sheeko ah, waxaa laga dayaa MEEXAAN-ka(The Aesthetics), waxa lagu dhoodad siiyaa, sida sheekarnimada leh ee uu u wax-sheegayo, higillada waxsheeg(Figures Of Speech) ee ku jira, hilqadaha(The Ornaments) uu adeegsaday, sida areennada(The Rhymes), Shibbareennada(The Consonances), Shaqalreennada(The Assonances).
Waxa la dayaa oo lagu dhoodad siiyaa, sida wax-qorniinkiisu ama waxsheeggiisu u ifaalleysan yahay(How Expressive it is), uu u sifaalleysan yahay(How Descriptive it is), uu u waraanwaryeysan yahay(How Narrative it is). Waxa la dayaa xidhiidhsanaanta ama isku-taxnaanta wax-qorniinkiisa ama waxsheegyadiisa, halsaawe ahaan(Monologue), haasaawe ahaan(Dialogue), iyo haasowtan ahaan(Conversationally).
Waxa lagu dhiifo-saaraa, sida uu intaas aynu soo xusnay u hal-seegan yahay.

FAAQIDAADDA SUUGAANTA:
Suugaanta Murtideeda iyo Maansadeedu waa ay kala saafan yihiin. Waxa aynu salal ka dhiganaynaa shanta god ee murtidu leedahay, iyadoo aynu maanku ku haysanayno in aynu ka guda-baadhno Maansooyinka tiraabaha murtigalka ah ee ku jira, oo ahaanaya tiraabaha dhaxalgalka ah, ee ku jira maanso, kuwaasoo ahaada, kuwo tiriyaha Maansoda ka-dibkiis loo soo xigan karo, tiraabahaas oo ah:
Maahmaah, Halqabsi, Halhays, Halkudheg, ama Halxidhaale.
Suugaanyahanka kastaa waxa uu taawiyay ama tiriyay waa FALTAAWO(ARTWORK): Waxaa aynu u faaqidaynaa sidatan:
1.      DABUUBTA Maansadiisa(Theme Of The Poem):
-Ma mid hufan baa? Mise waa mid xajiimo leh?: Dabuubtu waa ujeeddada ugu muhiimsan/koowaad ee maansada uu u tiriyay suugaanyahanku.
Sida Sooyaaleed(The Classical): Waxaa la qiimeyn jiray ama lagu tartami jiray Dabuubahan: Amaanta Dumarka, Amaanta Geella, Amaanta Fardaha iyo Guubaabada Dagaalgelinta ama Halganeed/Dareen kicinta.
Halkan tix walba waxa aynu sheegaynaa MEERISYADEEDA ama TUDUCYADEEDA(Oo ah intaasoo meeris oo isku ujeeddo biya-dhigaya), inta HUFAN oo aynu DHOODAD ku siinaynaa, waxa kaloo aynu sheegaynaa inta XAJIIMO-da leh oo aynu DHIIFO ku saaraynaa.
2.      DULUCDA: (The Contents):
-Waxyaabaha Meerisyada ama Tuducyada maansada ku tiraaban, ee ah nuxur guud, sida ka waranka ama ku soo halqabsiga dad iyo adeenti kalaba sida Libaax , iyo Waraabe oo la isku barbardhigayo ged murti-ahaaneed: Tusaale:
UBAD-DHAQASHADA:
Gorayadu Ilmaheeda
Aroori bay dhigtaayoo
Aboodigu ku laayaa!
Shinbirtuna Aroosay
Ila-xidhoo amaana bay
Ubadkeeda seexisaa!

QOF-KAASHIGA:
Baadida Nin Baa Kula Dayi Daalna Kaa Badane
Oo Inaad Hesho Doonayn Daa’in Abidkaaye!

GOBANIMADA:
Gobonimadu Waa Libin Ku Taxan Geeddi Nololeede
Marna Waa Gumarrada Aadmigu Hantiyo Guusha Ugu Weyne!

Waxa la dayayaa sida ay u guud-taran tahay (Its Common Benefit To Mankind), ama ay ugu gaar-taran tahay goosan dad ah, sida qoys ama qabiil.
Sida aynu soo xusnay, haddii DABUUB-ta tixdu ahaato mid dhiifo leh, oo looga jeedo mid aan waxtar u lahayn, Aadmiga, maxaa-yeelay, Aadmiga dhulka guudkiisa ku nooli waa isku baahi, wixii midkood ama qaar ka mida waxtar u leh, intooda kalana waxtar baa ay u leeyihiin.

DAWLIIKA: (Structure Of The Poem)
Waa meexaanka(The Aesthetic): Habdhaca, sida ay maansadu u dhisan tahay farshaxan ahaan, ama taawo ahaan. Maanso kastaa waxa ay leedahay TIBIXQAAR: Oo ah tibix uu ku dhisan yahay AREEN-keedu(Its Rhyme): Waxa ay leedahay QADAN: Oo ah isu-dheelitirnaanta Meerisyadeeda.
Dhisnaanta dhan ee TIBIXQAAR ee maansada Suugaanyahan waxaa lagu siiyaa DHOOD.
Isu-Dheelitirnaanta ama QADAN-dhisnaanta Maansadiisa waxaa lagu siiyaa DHOOD.
·         Gabaygu waa boqorka maansooyinka: Meeriska(The Verse) gabayga ayaa ugu dheer maansooyinka jira.
·         Waxa kaloo jira gabay seddexley ah , oo ah jaad-gabayeedka ugu dawliilka adag: Sida:

Habka Nolosha Hiddaha Iyo Dhaqanka Hilinka Taariikhda
Hawshii Guriga Heeryada Ratiga Hiilka Iyo Hooda
[Gabay: Sayid Maxamed Cabdalle Xasan]
Waxa kaloo la dhahay:
Habka Nabadda Hiddaha Iyo Dhaqanka Hilinkii Hilaadda
Hawshii Guriga Heeryada Ratiga Hiilka Iyo Hooda!

Shansha Adhiba Shidhixaa Danbaa Shuxa Abidkiiye
Shahwo Oday Ka Qaaliban Abtiga Shaashadii Xumiye!
[Gabay Salaan Carabey]

Jaad gabayeedyadan ayaa ugu dawliil sareeya gabay Soomaaliga.
Waxa ay leeyihiin TIBIXQAAR Seddexan, halka gabayga raadifan uu leeyahay Tibixqaar Lamaan. Waxa u dheer HOORIS-ka(The Chorus), oo ah sida uu ku soo sargo’aya. Gabay tusaaleedka koowaad, waxa uu ku soo sargo’ayaa –DA. Halka gabay tusaaleedka labaad uu ku soo sargo’ayo –E. Taas oo ay uga egyihiin Gabay Carabiga.
  

Wednesday, 2 January 2013

AFARQAAD KALE



AFARQAAD KALE:

Waxa aynu hore u tiraabnay Qeexaalka Guud Ee Af: Oo aynu afar xubnood ku koobnay:
1- EREYO, 2- DHAWAQ, 3- DHADHAN, 4- DHISMAYN.
Waxa aynu sii afarqaadaynaa sisibahaas afaran ee aynu afka ku soo koobnay garashadiisa ama barashadiisa. Waa ay jiraan qeexniinno kale oo af lagu qeexan karo, waxaa kaloo la dhahaa waa LAAC WARGUDASHO = Medium Of Communication,:
HAB summaddo u ah ifaalleynta aqoonta ama wargudashadooda Aadmiga…, etc(iwm)- waxa se aynu ku saljoogaynaa sisibahaas afaran oo aynu ku sii ambaqaadaynaa faallooyin iyo faahfaahinno tafatiran.
EREYO = MIDHO = ARRAH:
Waxaa laga sii ambaqaadaa Diiwaanka Ereyada oo lagu magacaabo Qaamuus, Ereykoobe, Afsuud( Suud = Hubsiimo), Arrahsuud(Lexicon). Midhaha afka marka la diiwaangeliyo waxa kaloo aynu dhahaynaa MIDHAMUUL=Vocabulary: (Muul= Waa erey Carabi-Soomaali ah oo ka dhigan ku buuxsanaan/ku-dhamaan).
Waxa aynu hadda tiraabaynaa ARRAH= Dhaqan ahaan, soojireen ahaan, haweenka ayaa arrahsan jiray, taasoo ka dhigan …Waa ay midho-guran jireen!
Xaga kasmada ARRAH waa midh erey ah, oo ah erey sixin, saafiya, asal-Soomaali ah, halka Midhamuulku tilmaamayo ereyada afka ee adeegsan, kuwaasoo isugu jiri kara kuwo asal-Soomaali ah, iyo kuwo asal-qalaadood ah. Sidaas darteed ARRAHU waa midhaha sixin ee afka haybtiisa odoleeya(constitutes). Waxa erey-tiraabeedkan aynu ka tarsanaynaa:-
LEXIS = Arrah
LEXICAL = Arraheed
LEXEME = Arrahti
LEXICON = Arrahsuud
LEXICOLOGY = Arrahgarad/Arrahgaran/Arrahkasyo
LEXICOGRAPHY = Arrahqorniin
Waxa aynu qeexaynaa:-
LEXEME(ARRAHTI): Waa unnugta ugu yare e ku tirsan midhamuul af.Tusaale:-QOR

DHAWAQA:
PHONETICS = DHAWAQTAN
PHONOLOGY = Dhawaqgarad/Dhawaqgaran/Dhawaqkasyo
PHONEME = DHAWAQTI: Waa haltida ugu yar ee ku sudgaaran cod soo saarka Aadmiga, taasoo ka adeegta dunaandayista micnaha.

DHADHANKA:
SEMANTICS = DHADHANTAN-ka
SEMEME = DHADHANTI: Waa unnugta ugu yar micne ee loo tixgeliyo marka la lifafgurayo dhadhantankiisa afka.
F.G.(N.B.): Ha ku laqbudin DHADHAMO = TASTE, - DHADHAMOOYIN = TASTES: Oo ahaada shanta lagu barto Halgedda Anoolka(The Biology): 1-Macaan(Sweet),
2- Qadhaadh(Bitter) , 3- Dhanaan(Sour), 4- Cusbood(Salty), 5- Ladaadyo(Umami)-[e.g.Delicious Food = Cunto Ladaadyo leh.]

DHISMAYN:
Waxaa muhiim ah: Kala-ogaanshaha, kala garashada ama kala-barashada Qoodadka Ereyada(Word Classes): Oo ah Qanqeybaha wax-hadalka(Parts Of Speech): Sida in erey qoodkiisu yahay MAGAC(NOUN), FAL(VERB), SITAAN(ADJECTIVE) iwm.
Qeybta ugu muhiimsan garashada afka ama barashada afka waa qeybtan DHISMAYNTA(Construction):  Waxa aynu soo garanay ama baranay EREYADII, DHAWAQOODII iyo DHADHANKOODII oo ah micnayaashoodii, inta ba waxaa ka muhiimsan DHISMAYNTOODII si aynu u soo saarno:
TARAB = CLAUSE
TIBAAX/TIRAAB = PHRASE/TERM
WEEDH = SENTENCE
Waxa aynu qeybtan ku magacaabnay:-
SYNTAX = TAXDI-da: Waa habka quman ee ereyada la iskugu daba-taxo.
SYNTACTIC = TAXDIYEED
SYNTACTICS = TAXDIYEYN-ta
Dhismaynta waxaa ku xindiyan(Conditioned by) barashada GAREEF-ka(The Grammar)-ka afka aynu kolba u gol-leenahay, barashadaas dabadeed waxaa inoo suuroobaysa inaynu si raabaqaadan iskugu taxno ereyadii afka, inagoo aqoonsan ama garanayna XEERAR-ka aynu tixgelinayno, si aynu u soo saarno WEEDH QUMAN(Correct Sentence) oo aynu iskaga jirno WEEDH QARBUDAN(Incorrect Sentence).
MORPHOLOGY = GEDBISKA-[SSARFI(Carabi)]:
* The Study Of Word And Term Formation And The Variations They Undergo In Discourse.
* Waa Barashada Erey Ama Tiraab Samaysmadka Iyo Gedgedoonka Ay Soo Maraan Marka Hadalka.
Derivational Morphology = Gedbiska Dhiraandhirmeed: Waa hababka nudubaynta(Affixation) ee gedeeya EREY kale iyadoo HORKABME, DIBKABME ama DHEXKABME uu raacayo salkii hore ee ereyga. Tusaale:- FOG+AAD = Distance.
Inflectional Morphology = Gedbiska Gedarogrogeed: Waa suubaabinta(The Modification-)-erey lagu gedeeyo kaasoo ahaa Erey Magac oo keli-ah – lagana dhigo Erey Magac wadar ah, ama Erey Fal ah – oo loo gedeeyo si Tagto(Past), ama Timaaddo(Future).
MORPHEME = GEDEYNTI: Waa unnugta ugu yar ee micne gedaysa ee leh falmoonaan Gareef.


Sunday, 15 July 2012

TOONKA GARDHAHA/ARTOONKA GARDHAHA: (The Field Of Law)


TOONKA GARDHAHA / ARTOONKA GARDHAHA: (Field Of Law)

Indeexdan(This Essay): Waxa aanu ku qaadaadhigaynaa GARDHAHA oo ah saabsane aad u sureeran ama se aad mirdan.
Inta gardhe goon(category) ee jira, ama goonanka gardhahu waa sidatan:
I.                    Gardhaha Rasmiga ah (Waa Madiimanaan/Secular.): Madiimanaantu waa SECULAR, taas micnaheedu maaha ATHEISM oo ka dhigan dafirsanaanta jiritaanka Eebbeh.
II.           Gardhaha Dhaqanka
III.         Gardhaha Diiniga ah/Diimannaata

I.                    Gardhaha Rasmiga ah: Inta Gardhe Laameed ee ka sii jira waxaa ka mida:
Gardhaha Dalalkabaxsan(International Law)
Gardhaha Jidmaraalka (Traffic Law)
Gardhaha Sinjiyadda/Sowraca &ama Socdaalka (Ethnic &Immigration Law)
Inisyadiisu(Its Components) way jiraan, Gardhaha Rasmiga ah: Waxaa la kala dhahaa QODOB(Article) iyo XEER(Act).[EEG LIFAAQA/See the appendix ]
Himilada sudan ee bulsho ku taamayso ayaa ah SOORNAAN(Justice) iyo SINNAAN(Equality), Mar kasta oo inguul la gaadhaba waxa sudnaatay himilo, maxaa yeelay mar walba waxa lagu taamayaa waa guul, waxa se kolba la gaadhaa waa inguullo.
SOORNAAN-tu waa u gudboonaanta tawlalka, iyo gardeyaasha jira ee dal ka sudan-Ama Xuqquuqqda.
SINNAAN-tu; Waa halkudheg ku baaqaya in aan qofna qof wax dheerayn GARSOOR-ka hortiisa, marka la isqabsado ee dacwad ooganto, haddii aan la isqabsan oo aanay dacwad oognayn markaas soornaan ayaa la dhaqan yahay oo saamidan(Prevalent-ah).
Waxbarashadu way kala hilgan tahay. Marka ay tahay heer goshiyeed , Gardhuhu wuxuu ahaadaa TOON(FIELD) gooniya.Waxbarashada Dugsiyeed ee aasaasiga ah, waxa jirtay oo haddana la soo halceliyay, halgedda ugu dhow ee GARDHAHA tilmaamaysa ama aasaas ahaan laga soo barto. Halgedaas  jirta ee ardayda loo dhigo oo lagu magacaabo RAYDI(Civics), waxa ay halgedaasu tiraabtaa tawlalka ama gardeyaasha amaba xuqquuqqda uu qof dal ku leeyahay, sida gardhaha dal uu u jiro, iyo cidda ka adeegta ee ka shaqaysa ama huwaabaha(Organisations-ka) ka adeega ama ka shaqeeya ee u xilsaaran.

II. Gardhaha Dhaqanka: Waxa uu isna leeyahay inisyo(Components) lagu tubaabtamo. Waxa inisyadaas la kala dhahaa: XEER iyo XAAL. Siyaabo kale way jiraan oo loo kala iniseeyo: QUDH iyo QOON, ama DHIIG iyo DHAQAN.
Marka Gardhe Dhaqameedka Soomaaliga la tilmaamayo waxa lagu tiraabaa GAR!. Ereyga Gar waa uu sitaamo badan yahay. Mar waa DACWAD, oo waxa la dhahaa GAR baan u leeyahay. Marna waa GARDHE oo waxa la tibaaxaa Sidaasi GAR=(Archaic Meaning Of Law) maaha, oo ka dhigan SHARCI maaha/MASHRIC maaha, ama GARDHE maaha. Gar Soomaalida Dhaqanka, waa mid la naqo, oo waxa la dhahaa GARNAQSI, iyo mid la qaado oo waxa la dhahaa ha loo GARQAADO.
Marka Gardhaha Dhaqanka la xiganayo, waxa la dhahaa – Gartani hore ma tahay mid ina soo martay? Haddii ay iyadoo kale hore u soo dhacday, sidii loo naqay ayaa XEER ah, oo la jalbeebtaa, ama la xigasho-naqaa. Haddii aanay hore u soo marin, jaadkeedu gartaas, waxa la dhahaa , waa GAR-UGUB! Markaasna waxa loo golfadhiistaa sidii loo naqi lahaa, iyadoo dhan walba laga eegayo, sida ay ku naqantona waxaa laga dhigtaa XEER, oo waxa ay ku biirtaa GALKEYD-ka/GARFAYL dhaqanka(Cultural Archive), oo isagu xusuusaha bulshada garyaqaanadeeda ku keydsan.
Badanka Gardhaha Dhaqanku, waxa uu ka saamidan yahay, oo uu aad uga hirgalan yahay, xaga miyiga, oo ah, xaga beellaha bulshadu ku kala degaan leedahay. Beel kasta oo Qaranka Axdi(CAHDI) ku leh, waxaa ka sudan XEER, ay kala mid tahay, beesha kale ee ay isku qaranka yihiin. Ka sokow, xeerarka Qaranka u yaal, waxa beellaha u kala jira xeerar ku aadan sida ay u wada dhaqan yihiin, ama u wada dhaqmayaan, kuwaasoo gadhwadeennadoodu kala ogsoon yihiin.

III . Gardhaha Diiniga-ah: Sida xoghayeennada Diintu, ictiqaadsan yihiin, Gardhuhu waa saabsane sureeran ama aad u muhiim ah. Taasoo gaadhsiisan heer Eebbeh uu samada ka soo dejiyay, oo uu Nebiyo ama Rasuullo ku soo dejiyay, kuna soo dejin jiray. Waxa kaloo ay ictiqaadsan yihiin, in Gardhuhu aanuu ahayn, wax Aadmigu alifi karo ama uu taawin karo. Gardhaha marka dhanka Diinta laga eego, wuxuu ahaa taxane samada Eebbeh ka soo dejin jiray, oo haatan ebyoomay oo la wada ogsoon yahay, Dhaabkiisa iyo Dheegiisaba.
Gardhaha Diiniga ahi, wuxuu isba sidoo kale leeyahay, inisyadiisa, kuwaasoo lagu magacaabo AXKAAM ama GARDHEBYO.

DHIDBANAANTA GARDHAHA:( Firmness Of Law)
Dalalka horumarsan ee lagu tilmaamsado inay soornaan iyo sinnaan ka jirto , waxaa Dhidbanaan leh Gardhaha.
Waxa jira SATI ama Tiraab, dunida ka caan ah, oo ku aadan GARDHAHA iyo Soornaanta. “Dacwaysanuhu waa uu salsuuban yahay taniyo inta eed ku run-ahaanayso!” = “The Suspect Is Innocent Until Proven Guilty”= “Al-Mutaham Barii Xataa Tuthbit Idaanatu”.
Xaga af-Soomaaliga waxa haatan la dhahaa, qofka DACWAYSANE-ha ah EEDEYSANE..Taasina waa mid tilmaamaysa, in aan dacwaysanaha loo xeerinin eed la’aan, ama laga sii horkadhacayo in qofkii la dacweeyaba uu eedaysane yahay.
Waxa se ay soornaantu ku jirtaa, in aan dacwaysanaha la dhihin eedaysane, taniyo inta uu Garsoore ku gardhebayo inuu dacwaysanuhu eedaysane yahay.
Xeer-ilaaliye(The Prosecutor)- Ayaa dacwaysanaha ku ooga dacwad(Case/Qqaddiyah). Dacwadda qof baa ka dacweeye ah, oo u xilsaartay huwaabta Dawladda u qaabilsan Gardhaha. Xaga dawladda Xeer-ilaaliyayaasha ayaa dacwadaha soo-ooga. Garsooreyaashu waa ay garqaadaan (Do Trails)- Garqaadista danbadeed ayaa dacwaysanuhu noqdaa eedaysane(Guilty) ama ma-eedaysane(Not-Guilty).
GARSOOR waa THE JUDICIARY. Gardhebe waa The Judge Who Makes The Sentence! Gardhebka uu Garsoore gardhebayo, ayaa soornaan sameeya, ama eexi ka timaadaa, haddii aan si soornaan iyo sinnaan leh, loo garqaadin.
Garqaadista waxaa u lama-huraan ah, in dacwaysanuhu helo, qareen ka deedafeeya wixii aan qabanin ee uu dacwaysanuhu rabo in Golgarka dhexdiisa looga sheego, si taas uu Garsooruhu u ogaado, ka hor inta aanuu gardhebin, ama gardheb samaynin.
SOORNAANSHE-hu(Al-Cadli-gu): Waa Eebbeh. Isagaa laga tayametaa eexla’aanta oo ku sitaaman inuu leeyahaya soornaanta. Soornaanshenimadu waa sitaan milgan oo ka mida sitaamaha Eebbeh ee laga tayameto.
Iska-jiraada ama iska-jirista eexdu(Ttulmi-gu) waa suubanaanta dadnimo ama qofnimo ee Bini-Aadam gaadho. Qofka garsoorka ka shaqeynaya waxa la gudboon inuu ku adeego eexla’aan iyo xaglin la’aan. haddii kale wuxuu jebinayaa anshaxii shaqada

Dhidbanaanta Gardhaha waxaa door ka qaata, GOLGARADA(The Courts). Siyaabo kala duwan ayaa, qaran walba u dhidbaneeyaa, golgaradiisa. Mar waxa jira Golgar Dhaqan, mar waxa jiri kara Golgar Diin, mar kale waxa jiri kara Golgar Rasmiya, waxa ay taasi ku xidhan tahay, marba dacwadda taagan. Haatan, sida bulshada Soomaalida u jirta, ee golgaro u ah, waxa la magacaabaa Golgar Degmo, Golgar Gobol, iyo Golgar Sare, ama Golgarka Racfaanka. Dal ba si baa u gaarra. Taasina waxay ku xidhan tahay sida Talameelkooda Gardheed uu u jiro(The Policy Behind The Judiciary System) Talameelkaas ama POLICY-gaas oo lagu tilmaami karo, kala helista SINNAAN iyo SOORNAAN.
Xaga gardhaha ee dalalka dal-ba si buu u dhidbaneeyaa huwaabaha u xilsaaran arrimihiisa gardhaha, sidoo kala-na u magacaabaa suraabada u higilan xilalka gardheed (The titles holding legal resposibilty). Tusaaleyaal:
Garyaqaanada Ama Qareennada Garneed = Lawyers Or Legal Representatives
-Garyaqaanka Dawladda [Waa Garyaqaan u qaabilsan dalka arrimaha dawladnimada]
-Garyaqaanka Arrimaha Rayidka
-Garyaqaanka Arrimaha Dastuurka
-Garyaqaanka Arribaha Diinka/Diinta

Xeer-ilaaliyeyaalsha = Prosecutors
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Dawladda [Waa xeer-ilaaliye gaar ugu qaabilsan dalka arrimaha dawladda]
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Rayidka
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arrimaha Dastuurka
-Xeer-ilaaliyaha Arribaha Diinka 

Garsooreyaalsha = Judges:
Garsooraha Arrimaha Dawladda
Garsooraha Arrimaha Dastuurka
Garsooraha Arrimaha Diinta
Tiraabo-(Terms):

I. Gardhaha Madiimannaata = Secular Law = Mashric Al-Dunyawiy
II. Gardhaha Dhaqanka = Cultural Law = Mashric Al-Qqinaathiy
III. Gardhaha Diiniga Ah/Diimannaanta = Religious Law = Mashric Al-Diiniy

HUWAAB-ta = Instituation/Organisation/Al-Hay'ah
Tiraabganka Gardhaha = Terminology Of Law
Golgar = Court
Qolgar = Courtroom
Edeg-ga = The Dock
Barta Marqaatiga/Maragqaatiga = Witness Box
Goobjooge = Eye-Witness
Gardhe = Law = MASHRIC
GAR = Somali Archaic Term Of  Law /As Well As: Somali Cultural Term Of Law
Gardhe-dejiye/Gardhe-qorista = Legislator/Law-maker/MUSHRIC
Xeerdejin-ta/Xeer-qorista = Legislation(Legislative Body) = MUSHRICIIN
Si-gardheed = Legal Wise = Sifa-sharciyah/qaanuuniyah/ SIFA-MASHRICIYAH
Garne = Legal:[Waxa garne ah xeerarka dhaqangalay ee gardheed]
Garneyn = Legalizing [Si-gardheed u dhaqangelin xeer/xeerar]
Sinnaan = Equality
Soornaan = Justice
Eex = Lack of justice = Ttulmiy
Soornaanshe/Soornaalaha = The Just = Al-Caadil-ka/Al-Cadlu (Eebbeh)
Kasmada/Kasmaha Waxmaragga = Forensic Science
Wacaal/Wacaallo = Clue/Clues/Forensic
XEERI = ENACT
XEERIS = ENACTING
U-xeerin = To Enact For..
Xeer-ilaalin-ta Guud = Prosecution Service/Niyaabah Al-Caamah
Xeer-ilaaliye = Prosecuter/Wakiil-Niyaabah
Xeer-ilaaliyaha Guud/Garyaqaanka Guud = Attorney General/Naa'ib Al-Caam
Garyaqaan = Lawyer
Garsoore = The Judge
Garsoor = The Justice/Judiciary System
Gardhebaad = Sentencing[e.g. Waxa lagu gardhebay.../waxa loo gardhebay....]
GARBEEGTI- TRIBUNAL
Xeerbeegti = Jury
Dacwaysane = Charged/Suspected person
Dacwad = Legal case/Case
Golgarka Racfaanka = Appeal Court
Golgarka Sare = Supreme Court
Racfaansi = Appealing
Gardhegaysi = Hearing
Garqaadis = Trial
Xeer-quduuc = Persecution
Dhigaalshe Guud = Notary Public/Nootaayo
Qareen = Legal Reprensatative/Defender
Garne-kaal = Legal Aid
Garnekaalis-ka = Paralegal
GARNEKAALISYO-da = PARALEGALS
Dooya-qaad = Advocate
Dooya-qaadis = Advocacy
Garde/Gardeyaal = Right/Rights
Garde = Entitlement [Gardeyaal = Entitlements]
Waxa uu u garde-leeyahay... = He is entitled to...
Tawl/Tawlal = Right/Rights
Tawlmoon/Tawlmoone = Righteous/Xaqqaaniy
Xeer =  Act
Qodob = Article
Tarab = Clause (Faqrah/Faqrad)
Reged-ka = Bench (Guddi-garsooreyaal ah halka ay fadhiistaan ama iyaga) 
Ilaaq = An Offence
Dhibaab = Penal/ Ciqqaab
Qayxooyinka Dhibaabta = Penal Codes
Gardheyaalsha Dhibaabta = Penal Laws
Dacwi-ga = Case-Party
Dacwiya-da = Case-Parties
Eersade = Claimant
Lagu-eeseeyay = Charged with...
Lagu-eedeeyay = Accused
Geysimaad = Conviction
Geysimaadyo Hore = Previous Convictions
Goodhac = Verdict [e.g. Jury have you reached your verdict=Xeerbeegti ma gaadheen GOODHACIINII!]
Libraar Rayid/Rayidnimo = Civil Liberty
Libraaraha Rayidka = Civil Liberties
Gardhaha Dhagaraha = Criminal Law
Gardhaha Is-Aaminaadda = Trust Law
Gardhaha Habmaamulka = Administrative Law
Gardhaha Qandarro-da = Contracts Law
Gardhaha Qoomaha(Qoon-ta) = Torts Law

MICNAYAAL LIFAAQ-AH [APPENDIX]

EREYGA GAR:
1. Waa GAR = Waa RUN/It is true/It is Truth /Ssidqq
2. Waa GAR = Waa XAQQ/It is RIGHT/It is ENTITLEMENT
3. GAR-ka[Jawaq Soomaaliga Koonfureed] = GADH-ka[Jawaqa Waqooyi] =Timaha Gafuurka/The Beard
4. GAR-ta = Dacwadda(Modern Term Of Case)/Qqaddiyah
5.GAR = GARDHE(Somali Modern Term Of LAW)/MASHRIC
6.GAR = Xadhig ka mida xadhkaha awrka lagu hoggaamiyo
7.GAREE = Siyee/Xadhkee/Law-garee/Legalize/Garnee/Gardhee/Sharciyee/Mashricee
8. Waa Loo GARAY = Waa Loo Gardhebay/Waa Loo Xukumay/It has been sentenced for...
Ereyga GAR xaga af-Soomaaliga waa erey MADIYA, oo Gareef-ahaan ama NAXWE-ahaan ma yeesho WADARAYN. Isku-dayid baa ah: GARAR/GARAYOW/GAREYAAL/GARYAAL. Hase ahaatee, sida haddeeran marka jeedafku uu LAW-ga/SHARCI-ga/MASHRICA yahay Waa GARDHE ereyga tiraabta ah, oo yeesha wadarayn ahaata GARDHEYAAL.
Erey-tiraabeed waa erey micne sariban leh(A word which has a specific meaning) - Taasina waa muhiim xaga waxbarashada oo dhan, siiba barashada Gardhaha.
9. GARDHEYAAL = MASHAARIC / LAWS

Waxa sidoo kale ah MADI: Ereyadan ama Tiraabahan XEER iyo QODOB
EREYGA XEER:
1. XEER = Qqaanuun/Act
2. XEER = Convention/Charter/Mucaahadah/Cahdiy/HESHIIS/DHAAHO
3. XEER = Asalka Miyiga waa xadhig ka mida xadhkaha Aqal Soomaaliga ku dabran.
4.XEER = Micne DHAQAN= DO AS YOU WOULD BE DONE BY!(Cultural Proverb): "Ka Yeel Sidii Lagaa Yeeli Lahaa!" : "Ka Yeel Sida Aad Jeceshahay In Lagaa Yeelo!"
5. XEER = Rule/Qqaacidah/Xukum/Dastuur
6. XEEROW! XEER XEER![Ayaa seddexjeer la dhahaa marka aan tiraabo la kala qoronin xeer..AAMIIN] =
O'God Let That Be An Act![AAMIIN]
7. XEER = Magaca Eebbeh Ee Gardhaha = God's Name Of Law
EREYGA QODOB:
1. QODOB = Saabsane/TOPIC/POINT
2. QODOB = AGENDA
3. QODOB = Tolmo la tolo meel jidh ah, ama harqad maro ah ama wax kale ah.
4. QODOB = ARTICLE/NASS